Negative reinforcement involves the removal of a stimulus increasing the likelihood of a positive effect. An example of this would be to take two aspirins to remove the pain from a headache.
Punishment is a process that decreases the likelihood of a behavior to occur again... Showed first 250 characters
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This is not to be confused with negative reinforcement because it doesn't increase the likelihood of an occurrence. There are drawbacks to punishment. It doesn't teach an appropriate behavior to replace an inappropriate one. Also, intense punishment can lead to results such as passivity, fear, anxiety, or hostility... Showed next 250 characters
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My mini-report is on Christopher Columbus (1451-1506). From what we all should know about Columbus, is that he was the man credited with the discovery of America...
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Operant Conditioning, also known as Instrumental learning is defined as a "learning process by which the consequences of an operant response affects the likelihood that the response will occur in the future"(Kozak, pg 22)...
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Experiences Never Forgotten
Positive reinforcement is any pleasant consequence of behavior that leads to an increase in that behavior. In other words, if a child done well cleaning his room, it would be positive reinforcement for the parent to give him the child a hug...
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How do schedules of reinforcment affect learning?
If a removal of a positive-pleasant stimulus or the addition of a negative/aversive stimulus will lead to an undesired target behavior. Using an intermittent schedule when you are attempting to reduce a behavior may actually lead to strengthening of the behavior; this is certainly an unwanted end result...
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There are two types of consequences associated with this conditioning: reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of repetitive behaviour, and punishment which decreases the probability of the undesirable actions (Smallbone, 2007, as cited in Hayes & Prenzler, 2007)...
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Psychologists have preformed many studies and proposed many theories regarding learning. Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to past experience...
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From the Paper:
"The term operant conditioning was invented by B. F. Skinner in 1937 in the background of reflex physiology, to differentiate what he was interested in; behavior that affects the environment - from the reflex-related subject matter of the Pavlovian conditioning...